We have published a review article on microneedles as a technological platform for diagnosing infectious diseases. In this review, we enumerate the infectious diseases that could potentially be diagnosed in the skin, examine the mechanisms of existing microneedle diagnostic technologies, and evaluate their applications in infectious disease diagnosis. This publication is timely given that we’re in the middle of a infectious disease pandemic.
Any diagnostic test has to be specific to be useful (Figure 1). For a potentially deadly diseases, the more rapid the diagnosis, the better, because it buys precious time for the patient to seek early treatment, which could save lives. However, for infectious diseases that can be transmitted by close contact, it’s also desirable that the patient can administer the test themselves without too much discomfort. Many tests do better in meeting some of these criteria at the expense of other criteria. For example, I took the PCR test for COVID-19. I am sure the test itself was highly specific, but the nasal and throat swabs were uncomfortable. The diagnosis wasn’t exactly ‘rapid’ either — I got my result several days later (mainly due to limited test capacity at that time, but that has improved significantly since). Microneedle devices are painless to administer on the skin, and tests can produce real-time or near-real-time results. Not all of these studies have been on infectious diseases, of course. The technology is still nascent but the potentials are huge.
The review article is currently in press, but a pre-proof is already available for download from Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B. There have been a number of minor corrections to this pre-proof (mainly typographical and referencing error) which will appear in the final publication, but the pre-proof should satisfy the impatient for now.
Congratulations to everyone involved in putting this publication together.
Our latest review in drug delivery is about silica nanoparticles, published this week in the open access journal, Pharmaceutics.
This is a collaborative paper with Professor Vitaliy Khutoryanskiy (University of Reading, UK), Dr Twana M. Ways (University of Sulaimani, Iraq), and our own Dr Wing Man Lau (Newcastle University, UK). In the paper, we examine the applications of silica nanoparticles in transmucosal drug delivery. We discuss different types of silica nanoparticles and their methods of preparation, including surface functionalisation strategies to facilitate interactions with mucosal surfaces.
The recent COVID-19 pandemic brought the healthcare systems in many countries to their knees. One of the key problems that became evident early on was the lack of diagnostic tools that were rapid and readily accessible to the public.
Diagnostics is what we do as a research team. Naturally, we contemplated what we could do in a situation like this. The result is a perspective article published in Precision Nanomedicine, the official journal of the European Foundation for Nanomedicine.
The conclusion? Microneedle systems excel in many ways as a diagnostic tool. Various microneedle platforms have demonstrated advantages of portability, self-administrability, affordability and scalability over other diagnostic platforms. The potential is huge but the technology is still in its infancy. We need more research to turn that potential into tangible clinical benefits, but we can’t do it alone. Cross-disciplinary collaboration and stakeholder support will be needed to drive this effort forward.
One of the challenges in developing microneedle devices to capture disease biomarkers from the skin is the lack of suitable skin specimens in which to test the devices. Donor skin specimens that carry the specific target diseases simply do not come by easily.
We took a grounds-up approach by growing melanoma skin cancer cells in a three-dimensional (3D) culture, supported structurally by a biocompatible polymer scaffold. This allowed us to simulate not only the biological microenvironment around the cells, but also the three-dimensional structure of the skin for microneedle insertion. Importantly, it was a simple and inexpensive, yet versatile, laboratory model to set up.
In pioneering the 3D cell culture model for evaluating microneedle devices against a skin cancer biomarker, we also demonstrated – for the first time – successful capture of S100B (a biomarker for melanoma skin cancer) in situ using our immunodiagnostic microneedle device.
Stella Totti, formerly a PhD student and now a postdoctoral researcher in Eirini’s research group, is the first author. I am especially pleased that hard work has paid off for Lorraine Dale, a former MSc student of mine, who contributed greatly to this work and is a co-author on this paper.
We have developed a microneedle array biosensor that can detect skin burns. To make the biosensor, we devised a nanocomposite material from carbon nanotubes and a biocompatible polymer, poly(lactic acid). We then shaped the microneedle array from the nanocomposite material. The microneedles that formed were about 870 μm long, 250 μm wide, and electroactive. This meant that the microneedle array could be inserted into the skin to detect certain analytes by electrochemistry. We verified this by using the microneedle array to detect vitamin C in solution. Interestingly, when we tested the microneedle array biosensor on skin burns and normal (non-burnt) skin, the skin specimens showed different electrochemical responses. This gives us the technological basis for a minimally invasive biosensing approach to detecting skin burns.
Our paper on surface-functionalised nanoparticles and their ability to adhere to or penetrate mucous membranes has been accepted and published online. I congratulate my co-authors on this well-deserved outcome, and hereby present the paper to my readers:
In the paper, we demonstrated that nanoparticles whose surfaces were functionalised differently attained the ability to either adhere to or penetrate the mucus layer in the small intestines of the rat. We postulate that the same can be true in humans. This has important applications in oral drug delivery, where the nanoparticles can be tailored to target drug delivery to the gut differently, depending on the desired drug release profile.
The paper describes a burn wound model that enables high-throughput evaluation of wound control measures. It is based on ex vivo (i.e. freshly excised) porcine skin that is both anatomically relevant and biologically responsive, and therefore superior to most in vitro models currently available.
I am glad to have contributed to this paper, and am pleased to introduce it to my readers.