Introduction. The Rhizome and the arborescent model. The powerful tree trunk, here representing a hierarchy of opinion against the horizontal, discontinuous and free flight of the rhizome. The trunk is filiation. The rhizome on the other hand represents multiplicities. It has no beginning or end, just a middle (a milieu). It is a subterranean shoot, it spreads horizontally, and at certain junctures plateaus arise. A rhizome is about connectivity. It does not run opposed to the arborescent (or state) but it is a line of escape/flight, a different way. No one language in a rhizome, multiplicity. Arborescent might seek a universal language. Nomad thought verses state space. The overall aim is to investigate the music press and the changes that have occurred due to advances in communication and technology and to look at the potential future of the music press plus industry and the implication for the consumer, artist and the record labels. Plateaus. What are the new plateaus that have arisen due to advances in technology and communication? New web sites, the advent of file sharing. The consumer ideally jumps from one to another (metacritic.com) and makes informed decisions on what to listen to or buy. The eventuality of the rhizome might be becoming ‘a self facilitating media node,’ (Nathan Barley, Channel 4). What about those who can’t reach these plateaus? Is the arborescent structure still in existence? The event. ‘The best of all worlds is not the one that reproduces the eternal, but the one in which new creations are produced, the one endowed with a capacity for innovation or creativity: a teleological conversion of philosophy,’ (p79, The Fold, Deleuze). Deleuze’s theory of the event and the growing sense that music is becoming more about the event. The live sphere is the only one that doesn’t represent an absence. Can the press ever influence us more than the first hand experience? Examples, Polyphonic Spree, Arctic Monkeys. War Machines. The war machine is a kind of movement which is separate to the state, and it causes concern to, or somehow disturbs the sedentary cultures within the state. For the purpose of this discussion the arborescent root within the music industry could be equated with the state. Independent labels and bands as war machines. They try to mix the state apparatus up. Runs away from as well as struggle against the state. Eventually become recoded by capital, example Creation records. Reterritorialization and deterritorialization, capitalism and the attempt by the state to limit desires. Do the new plateaus mean a creation of desires. Hell is For Heroes and Captains of industry case studies Interview with an independent label and band. The band have been signed to a major, and independent, and a have released an album on their own label. Captains of Industry is run as a collective, skills which can be used are used. There is no management structure and yet they have been relatively successful. How much can a small label and a rock band do? The culmination of war machines to strangle the arborescent root. Bands that have been directly affected by the changes in technology- Arctic Monkeys, Wilco etc. Are there pitfalls to file sharing? Conclusion. Is the music mainstream music press losing its influence? How much did it have in the first place? Is there a cycle going on- the arborescent, the struggle to topple it then the creation of another? If we are bored of trees, why do we keep planting them?
Objectives: The main objective for this project is to look at counselling. With the main focus upon University counselling services, particularly focusing on Durham, Newcastle and Northumbria University counselling services. Looking at what the need for counselling is and how the service functions. Concepts: looking at the advances in technology, and how these advancements may affect the masses. The focus is upon the change that has occurred in the formation of identity, with advertising being entwined into peoples lives, with television, internet etc. my intention is also to look at how things could work out, focusing on a children’s novel entitled Feed, which is set far into the future when technology is integral to life, and all people are fitted with a chip in their brains which enables them to connect to the internet at all times. I will be focusing on the implications of such a society, with such integral technology. Key Terms: • Subject/object distinction • Counselling • Reality as indefinable • Existentialist autonomy • Causality • Technological evolution • Social Positivism • Transcendence • Reality and Hyper reality
Territory: Southlands Special Secondary School in Tynemouth, Newcastle. By basing my research here, I have gained valuable primary information through interviews, observations and conversations on Special Education. Abstract: Education as a whole has seen a mass amount of change since the age of Plato and Socrates, however in this project it is a sub form of education that I am exploring, Special Education. Unlike mainstream education, special education has had to deal with different criticisms to achieve the place in acceptable society that it has now, as it suffered from a lot of discrimination, as did the children that were labelled as ‘special’. Now they have a Special Educational Needs and Disability Act to protect them, so I aim to see if these adjustments have substantially improved how they are perceived in the education system and also if they are taught fairly and correctly in conjunction with their learning difficulty. Topical issues that are raised: – What is Education? From the viewpoint of famous thinkers. (Rousseau) – What are the myths surrounding Special Education? Why do they exist? – ADHD (Learning Difficulties-behavioural/emotional)– An example of one of the medical diagnoses given to a child who attends a Special school. – Reference to educational psychologists: Piaget, Bruner and Vygotsky and how they think children should be taught. – Teaching styles – particularly in creative (art/music) classes and science classes. Differences in techniques with each other, and with general teaching styles in mainstream education. Do they improve learning? – Could a philosophical based approach to teaching for Learning Difficulties be more beneficial? Or a philosophy class? – Is Special Education still discriminated against today?
An examination of minor literature: the deterritorialization of language and how the use of language relates to the notion of différance in terms of identity. Aims: I aim to demonstrate within my investigation, how deterritorialization, as a central concept to minor literature, is affluent in the writings of the authors within my territory. I wish to further argue that within minor literature, Derrida’s concept of différance helps us to understand the position that identity has to play for the author. Territory: Works from Franz Kafka and Hunter.S.Thompson will be central within my territory of authors of minor literature and their works will be related to the philosophical concepts of Deleuze and Derrida. Philosophical concepts and thinkers: Deleuze: deterritorialization and the process of ‘becoming minor’ and Derrida: deconstruction and the concept of différance.
AIM – To examine the changes in English football in recent decades, which have led to increasing levels of commodification. I intend to discover the reasons increased commodification has occurred, at the impact of increased commodification on both big clubs and small clubs and I intend to see how genuine football supporters have been affected. TERRITORY – My territory is the English Football League – I will look at how several English league clubs have been affected by the changes, focusing on two clubs who have been affected very differently, Burnley F.C. and Chelsea F.C. CHANGE – English Football’s Rapid transformation from being a sport to being a profit-making business, which began in the 1960s, accelerated in the 80s and still continues today. SOURCES – I focused mainly on the theories of the Situationist International, in particular Guy Debord’s Society of the Spectacle. I also looked at Karl Marx’s Capital. and other texts from the Situationists and Marx. I also used several texts that examined changes in English football, in particular Anthony King’s The End of The Terraces, which charts the transformation in English football in the last two decades in favour of big city clubs.
Aims and Objectives ▪ To begin by establishing the Modern and Postmodern styles and characteristics of Architecture and more importantly, how and why they came about. ▪ To Show how Ouseburn Valley has been affected by the changing styles of Architecture. ▪ To illustrate how and why society’s view of the world has changed with the regeneration of Ouseburn Valley. Intentions. I will progress to evaluate the effects of this change by considering the following questions: ▪ Material change results in special change. Thus, how do our interpretations of space and time alter with the shift from modernism to postmodernism? ▪ Furthermore, how does this affect the way we act with respect to the world? ▪ How does our view of knowledge and reality change as a consequence of Postmodernism? Sources. The key source for my investigation will be David Harvey’s Condition of Postmodernity. In addition to this, I will refer to: Fredric Jameson – Postmodernism, or, the cultural logic of late capitalism. Perry Anderson – The Origins of Postmodernity. Jean-Francois Lyotard – The postmodern condition.
STAGE ONE. The primary stage of my project entailed research into the Baltic Art Factory and the Tate Modern Gallery. Comprising of multiple visits and enquiry into the intentions of the creators of both spaces. As well as research into the basic of museum and gallery theory. Bibliography includes: Smith, J. Alan, Baltic: The Art Factory. Gateshead: Baltic, 2002; Blazwick, Iwona and Wilson, Simon, Towards the Tate Modern. London: Tate Gallery Publishing, 2000 ;Hooper-Greenhill, Eilean, Museums and the Shaping of Knowledge. London; Routledge, 1992; Serota, Nicholas, Walter Neurath Memorial Lecture 1996: Experience or Interpretation: the Dilemma of Museums of Modern Art. London: Thames and Hudson, 1996. STAGE TWO. The secondary stage evolved from my findings in the first and led to research into personal experience when one encounters and reflects upon a sole work of modern art (that of Rothko). I also investigated the possibility of change in that experience from modern to postmodern society and the bearing of social and educational background on the experience of visual art. Including the theories of Pierre Bourdieu, David Harvey and Arthur C. Danto.
Themes: • In this project I look at how advertising, marketing and consumerism rule our culture, and the effects of this on the individuals existing within this society. The effects on the individual’s life such as freedom, happiness and identity. • The majority of most of our lives is spent working in order to make money, to purchase consumables. Consumables have become the indicators of status, rather than leisure time, or rank at work. For example what car you drive and labels you wear has become of incredible importance. • We now build up our identities through what we consume, and find a sense of freedom in the consumer arena. We feel that we are free to buy what we want and make personal choices, when in fact we are brainwashed and seduced by advertising and the mass media. • Is the world in which we are living a reality? Have we become so obsessed with objects and image that we do not know our real desires or what real fulfilment is? Consumer fulfilment is just postponing the emptiness of our lives, which is why we continue to consume, to constantly fill this void. Sources: I shall focus on three main thinkers, two sociologists Bunting and Bauman and the philosopher Debord. I shall also be comparing these thinkers to other philosophers throughout. • Bunting: I shall look at her book Willing Slaves, How the Overwork Culture is Ruining our Lives. She examines how we as a culture work exhaustive hours in order to consume, this desire to consume is installed in us through the media, advertising and marketing. • Bauman: I shall mainly be looking as his book Identity, and how our society saturated with the media and advertising has a huge effect on our identities. • Debord: I shall be looking at his book Society of the Spectacle, in which he critiques our culture. I shall be investigating what he means by the spectacle, and how he suggests that the society in which we live is not real due to advertising and the media. Our society is fake in a sense, and we have lost contact with our true desires and selves.
Territory. I used the corporate world as my territory and looked at it through the role and nature of the individual within this world. Areas of Investigation • I explored the relationship between the corporate world and the individual by looking at the evolution of the corporate structure and its rise to prominence within society. • I also investigated the ethics involved within a corporate structure and the relationships between individuals in this environment. • I looked at the relationship between the individual and the idea of power relations within society. • I also explored what the future of the corporate world could be and the role of the individual within this, with an emphasis on the rise of the postmodern and its impact on this world. Philosophical Ideas. I use the philosophical ideas on the nature of power and the individual from Foucault, and the rise of the corporation as an institution to replace the factory from Deleuze’s thought. When I explore the ethics within a corporate structure I look at the work of Robert Solomon and Robert Jackall on management ethics and their theory on ‘embededness’. In the relation to the future of the corporate world I have looked at the postmodern thought of Gianni Vattimo and Jean-Francois Lyotard to consider the idea that the over-arching structure of the universal narrative is disintegrating to be replaced by a multitude of individual voices. Conclusions. Throughout my project I seek to explore the relationship between the individual and the corporate world and to explain how this has changed as different aspects of the world have developed and the way in which we are propelled towards the postmodern individual
TERRITORY: The relation between the individualist and the collectivist, the individual and the collective has been well documented down through the centuries, but what of the future? What technological, socio and political endeavors and horrors will unfold and will philosophy continue to guide the way, or will things spiral rapidly out of control? Who really has control and where will people be looking to find the truth in a century from now? AIMS: Because of the shear ‘potential’ size of this project it would be impossible to look at all relevant recent breakthroughs and revolutions in subjects of our modern interest, so I decided to look at the major issues of the day in both the factual and the fictional, physical and mental. There really is nowhere to run then! Cloning, what are the issues? ‘AI’, the issues? What even is the structure of reality? This project will look in depth at the arguments for and against collective unification of our minds (theory now), but perhaps real some day and wonder what a society might be like that is devoid of secrets! Do we have the right to rob people of their personality for the sake of society, or to invade privacy to combat crime? If yes then why? If no then why? Are we living at a moment of great change? Is private identity worth preserving? Can we limit technological advancement or will it spiral out of control like drugs? Can we proceed any further at all without a hard look at reality outside any fixed time, whereby we ask; ‘what really is of value to humanity?’ Freedom or equality? PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS: Kant’s Critique of Judgement, Schiller’s Aesthetic Essays, T.G.Reed’s Schiller, Herman Cohen’s Kantian Socialism, Jean Francois Lyotard’s Kantian Socialism, Harry Van Der Linden’s ‘Kantian Ethics and Socialism’, Judith Barad’s ‘Ethics of Star Trek’, Lesley Sharpe’s ‘Schiller’s Aesthetic Essays: Two Centuries of Criticism’, TPM.
Central Questions: ▫ How and why do we want to capture our memories in media such as photographs, film and literature? ▫ What can we learn from this need to preserve our experiences? In particular this will relate to Robert Antelme’s The Human Race. ▫ How does our need to preserve memory relate to our struggle with the other? Exploration of the Territory and Central Concepts: ▫ Look at current ways of memory capture such as web archiving, and see how these relate to a need to capture experience as comprehensively as possible. ▫ Look closely at The Human Race and more generally at the ways in which we strive to preserve the memory of the holocaust. I also intend to separate individual and collective memory. ▫ Look at Heidegger’s work on the other in Being and Time. ▫ Look at Derrida’s notion of the other in relation to identity. I want to link identity to memory and see how we assert our individual and group identities through memory capture.
The initial reception of D&G’s C&S was coloured by the twin presences of its authors and the situational context of the ’68 riots. Until Lyotard’s Libidinal Economy in ’74 the political interpretation seemed to close around an orthodox reading of Deleuze and Guattari rather than a reading of C&S. LE puts into play the structuring processes of desire on the political economy at micro-economic level. Stand must be taken: to side with which aspects of C&S? * Marxist interpretation of a capital (hard left) * Psychoanalytic relation of schitzo/capital (soft left) * Micro-economies of desire (libertarian) * Pro-capital destruction of despot (neo-cons). Current battle plays itself out across intellectual topographies (journal, academic publishing) and also Capital rips up every stable political settlement, but where does it head next… CCRU track capital-war-machine path of flight: 1. 1500. Leviathan. Command core: Northern Mediterranean . Target area: Americas. Mode: Mercantile. Epidemic opportunism, selective intervention, colonial settlement. 2. 1756. Capital. Command core: Britain . Target areas: Americas-South Asia. Mode: Thermo-industrial. Imperialism control. 3. 1884. Spectacle. Command core: USA-Germany . Target areas: Africa-Russia-Nodal:periphery. Mode: Electrocorporate. Cultural overcoding / selective extermination. 4. 1948. Videodrome. Command core: USA / Target areas: Expanded:nodal:periphery. Mode: Info Satellitic-supercorporate. Cultural programming / general extermination. 5. 1980. Cyberspace, Command core: USA-Japan-Germany / Target areas: Totalized extra metropolitan space. Mode: AI-hyper corporate. Gross-neurocontrol / intermittent media-format exemplary extermination, virtual biocide. 6. 1996. Babylon. USA-EU:2-China (metalocal command centres) / Totalized planetary space. Photonic-Net Hypercapital Neo-Organic. Neuroprogramming / AI:Capital:Media:Military fusion, constant entertainment extermination process.
TERRITORY: MOTLEY CRUE. RESEARCH Research focused on reading autobiographies; The dirt (Motley Crue) and TommyLand (Tommy Lee, drummer of Motley Crue). Research also included interviews with local Newcastle based rock bands such as Firelight, Laconia and Fables Last Stand. DELEUZE & GUATTARI Early Motley Crue were minor, resisting and struggling against everything around them, including the present music scene and image. Later Motley Crue were major, as they grew successful and popularised a scene of sleazy hard glam rock. Motley Crue also exemplifies Deleuze & Guattari’s theory of desire as a productive force. FOUCAULT Foucault argued power and resistance were connected to immediacy and anti-authority struggles. Motley Crue were rebelling against everything present around them, with a strong attitude of anti-authority. Interestingly, as they got famous and successful they arguably became a source of authority for fans and inspired bands.
Territory: Africa has always been a focal point when discussing Third World Poverty as this vast continent contains the 24 lowest ranking nations out of the world’s 175 poorest countries. In the Western World we are frequently reminded of the poverty and suffering taking place in Africa through images in the media and events such as ‘Make Poverty History’, ‘Live 8’, and the most recent G8 summit which took place in the UK in 2005. In my project I will be exploring Africa and how it has changed over the past one hundred and fifty years; from pre-colonial times to the ‘Scramble for Africa’, through its struggle to regain independence and up to the current time. In considering how Africa has changed, or has been changed, over the last two centuries, it will also be necessary to give an account of the factors acting upon it such as Europeans as the main founders of the African colonies and the British and American governments in their political policies towards African poverty. Aims: I will look at Africa in a historical and political context and it’s relationships with Europe and America in order to determine whether or not we, in the Western World, can be held responsible for the extensive poverty in our world’s second largest continent. In addition to this, I will be assessing to what extent people actually care about those suffering in the Third World or if their way of life is so removed from our own that we view the situation as more fiction than fact. Finally, I will try to establish if the Western World has a social and moral obligation to try and ameliorate the situation and by what means. Concepts and Philosophy: In order to answer the questions set out in my aims, I will be paying particular reference to Peter Singer’s Practical Ethics and John Rawls’ A Theory of Justice. This will be in conjunction with the exploration of concepts such as; responsibility (individualistic and communitarian), moral obligation, justice and equality.
Food goes along with sleep, water and recreation to formulate the fundamental necessaries we as humans need to survive. In most developed countries we have cultivated mechanisms and technologies that greatly improve the provision of food and this has given rise to experimentation with flavours and recipes that has produced a variety of tastes and delights. Within these countries eating has lost its association with need and has developed a new connotation with pleasure. Restaurants are just one of the industries that have been born of that pleasure, as we enter the beginnings of a still very young millennium, the changes and growth of the restaurant industry provides a vessel in which to explore the drive for consumption, the importance of the meal and society in its relation to culture. All this is amidst a backdrop of those country’s which still encounter the struggle for food and in many ways reflect the same picture of life from the beginning of the last millennium. Part One – Analysis of three restaurants in Leeds:- Anthony’s – Fine Dining; The Outside In – Family Restaurant / Nouvelle Cuisine; McDonald’s – Fast Food. Part Two – History of The Restaurant, Parisian Phenomena, Move to England and USA, Last 50 years – diet revolution. Part Three – McDonaldization of Society, Max Weber – Rationalisation, Mass Culture / Consumerism. Part Four – Food Technology, Martin Heidegger and Albert Borgmann – Technology, Healthier Attitudes – Slow Food. Key Texts – Heidegger – Question Concerning Technology, Eric Schlosser – Fast Food Nation, George Ritzer – The McDonaldization of Society, Rebecca Sprang – History of the Restaurant, Peter Davison – The Cultural Debate, Theodore Adorno – The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture, Albert Borgmann – Technology and the Character of Contemporary Life, Alan Warde – Consumption, Food and Taste.
Aims: I aim to find in this project the changes in our beliefs on freedom over the past 50 years. I will do this by examining a number of different areas; Politics, sociology and philosophy. I will investigate how far we are free and how far we, as individuals, are able to have an input in global decisions. I will also use Aldous Huxley’s masterpiece Brave New World. With this I will compare the negative utopia Huxley created with our world today. How far are we conditioned with the use of television and mass media and can you compare these two modern creations with Huxley’s invented Soma? In terms of politics, this is the domain where are where are freedoms are formed. Politics sets forth the rules that both protect us and inhibit us. However how far has and can our voice been heard? How far can we influence governments? With one million people protesting in London alone over the war in Iraq, the British government still sent troops to a war which was both illegal and unethical. On a sociological level I will be examining freedom in terms of racism and minority groups. Have minority groups gained equal footing a predominantly white western world? With the philosophy world I will use Derrida and most of all Michel Foucault. He aimed to show that we are in actual fact freer that we actually think. He confronts all types of political thought. He aimed to find links between global politics and the individual. Sources: As I have said the major philosopher I will use in Michel Foucault and his works Discipline and Punish and The History of Sexulaity. I will also look at philosophers such as Nietzsche and Derrida. The major piece of literature I will use is Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World. Which will supply both an early twentieth century view on freedom and a piece with which I can compare our world today.
Territory. I firstly looked into the fashion industry and how the use of fake fur was apparent within this industry. However, this lead me on to the enquiry of animal rights within today’s society and how this view has progressed or changed throughout time. Therefore my search extended to the implications of animal rights and how these rights are philosophically perceived through time, up until the present day. Aim My aim for this project is to understand how we, through time, have got to the age where real fur is being used within the fashion industry and how this choice has been affected by past philosophical thinkers and their influence on society. I will be looking at the relationship between humans and animals. I aim to introduce ethical thoughts and philosophical ideas and implement these into a comprehensible understanding of the change in attitude towards animal rights. Philosophers and sources. I am going to use Peter Singers All animals are equal, Mills’ Utilitarianism and Animal rights and Human Obligation by Tom Regan and Peter Singer. These will be my main texts. I will also use History of Western Philosophy by Bertrand Russell.
Introduction. The 20th century has arguably brought about the evolution, or rather devolution into, commodity and the spectacle. Life has become an experience not in itself, but through proxy. ‘Dead the sublime, evermore the ephemeral’ is an investigation into why the ephemeral seems more relevant than the sublime, and how a modern society reacts to such a notion. I will conduct this investigation with regards to travel, why people take on such an activity and how it has possibly changed the way we think. Instilled in travel is the quest for change, experience and rebellion, hence inherent in the concept of travel are other movements searching for the same ends. Punk is one of these movements, which I shall encounter in this project. Aims. In this project I aim to evoke the change in Avant-garde movements over the latter half of the 20th century. Focusing on the work of Ballard and Debord I will suggest why such Avant-garde movements arose and what they stood for, hence ultimately what they aimed to achieve through the movement. I will approach travel as a possible Avant-garde movement itself, in the dying age of rebellion, I will convey the issues travel raises when considered as a movement itself. I will ask questions such as will travel, like punk and other radical movements, be a movement itself; will it achieve its aims and will it ultimately become what it stands to reject? Concepts. I will be focusing on two philosophical thinkers, Guy Debord and J.G Ballard. They will provide my argument from three similar, yet different and individual perspectives. The concepts these thinkers evoke are the “Society of the Spectacle”, and the ‘Death of Affect’. I will investigate their ideas and explore whether they evoke meaning in relation to why we travel, the effect it has on us and other people.
Title: The advancement of genetic therapy and the philosophical implications Aims: The main aim of this project is to look at gene therapy and the advancements it has made over the last 20 years, since the discovery of DNA. I will consider the ethical implications which may occur should genetic therapy become legal. Also, I will consider how changing ones DNA structure to overcome disease may conflict with the views of predetermination. Concepts: Primarily I will look at the concept of gene therapy. The use of gene therapy has huge philosophical implications. I will use the philosophical concepts of ‘fate’ and ‘free-will’ looking particularly at early Christian philosophy including St. Augustine and Calvin. Also I will look at ethics, including ‘Utilitarianism’ along with looking in particular at the philosophies of Kant, Mill and Hobbes. Sources: For this project I will use a wide variety of sources, within a number of different areas. Some of the main sources which I will use include Bertrand Russell’s History of Western Philosophy, St.Augustine’s The City of God, and Gordon Graham’s Genes: A philosophical inquiry. I will also look at the works of Kant, Mill, Hobbes, Calvin and I will also use a number of scientific journals.
Aims: The main aim of this project is an attempt to come up with a universal law that could be used in the treatment of sexual predators if there is one. I will look at whether sexual abusers are deserving of punishment. I will attempt to understand the motivations of the abuser. Look at the impact that the attack has on the victim. I will look at a range of punishment theories that could be universalised for one set rule for all abusers. Questions that need addressing: Why do paedophiles consider sex with children as acceptable behaviour? Why and how do sex offenders believe what they do is right, and how do they justify their actions? Can child molesters be cured? Or is it impossible? Is it to risky to let them out? The victim is affected for life so why shouldn’t the attacker pay for life? Key Sources. Michael Foucault: ‘The History of Sexuality’ Volume 1, Ernest Van Hagg ‘Punishing Criminals’, Barry M. Maletzky ‘Treating the Sexual Offender, Ann Wolbert and Burgess ‘Sexual assault of Children and Adolescents’.