Objectives – To show how and why society still needs myths and magic in the ages of science and enlightenment. Method – Define the language of myth, and why we read significance into events and objects; Define the function of myths and magic in relation to the human psyche and psychoanalysis; Sources – Barthes’ Mythologies, Rollo May’s The Cry For Myth, Adorno and Horkheimer’s Dialectic Of Enlightenment.
A study of the book:- its history, form, market, authors and its changing place in and of society. For centuries people have recorded important events and thoughts for their own personal reasons or for posterity. The format and availability of books have helped to shape the way knowledge has been received and perceived. However, in recent times the place of the written word as the primary source of information has been challenged as a consequence of technological advances. The role of the author has changed through time, from a position of anonymity, to one where the presence of the author had a significant impact on the work and so on to now where the reader is a significant impetus for what is produced Books afford a certain status, particularly hardbacks, despite the fact that technology has meant that books can be produced as quickly as carefully prepared magazine articles. Technology has also resulted in a rise in Internet sources and an increasing numbers of television channels needing information to transmit. We are bombarded with information and this makes it gradually more difficult to discern which facts are important or even true. Territory The changing modern society: – increasingly consumer driven, mediated by technology or the media, confusions of reality, the loss of meaning and the increasing sense of transience. Looking at current book sales and bestseller statistics in the UK, including the BBC big read winner’s list. Objectives To offer some insights into the future of books and their place and influence in society Sources Internet sources e.g. www.bookmarketing.co.uk, www.publishers.org.uk. The works of Michel Foucault and Jean Baudrillard.
A Study into the decline of the Christian Religion in Northern Europe transposed against the rise of religion in North America. Objectives To investigate the cultural differences between the new and old world, to see the appeal of religion between the two worlds and investigate the reasons for a decline in Europe Concepts The shifting role of religion in western society Territory Religious belief in the U.K. and U.S.A. throughout the 19th and 20th centuries The way we see the world around us defines us as spiritual beings, our whole religious outlook is affected by the way in which our national identity is formed. The U.K. lacks the drive and ambition to discover more about ourselves and so we are left behind
TITLE- Outline and consider how the philosophical concepts of power within institutions, according to Foucault, may be useful in assisting us to understand the change in power struggles between modern football clubs (as institutions) and their players (as individuals) compared with clubs first formed. Evaluate how this balance of power has shifted from the intuitions to the individual in the last hundred years and argue to what extent this relationship is also evident between the Football Association and Premier League. AIMS/OBJECTIVES- To show how Michel Foucault’s characterization of power in his works Power/Knowledge, The History of Sexuality and The Birth of the Clinic can be used a basis to explain the power struggles that exist between football clubs and their players. Show the factors/changes in rules of game that led to the balance of power shifting from club to players as a result of specific legal milestones such as the Eastham case or Bosman case which arguably laid the foundations for players to contest the supreme power of clubs. How this change has come about and to what extent The Football Association, as an oppressive institution, is to blame. In Foucault’s essay The Subject and Power, he outlines what he calls anti-authority struggles that will always develop between individuals and institutions and can be explained in terms of power struggles when the individuals reject the way in which certain institutions. Consequently, can power struggles in football, therefore, be explained in terms of this anti-authority struggle postulated by Foucault. Outline the changes in philosophical concept of power and how the definition has been adapted for to explain relations of power within institutions. Power promotes a delusion of one’s self-importance in the world, and this egotism leads to the illusion of the social effectiveness of power as an instrument that is used to control others. I will use the notion of change to show how change is fundamental when philosophically explaining the concept of power struggles within football institutions, because power is defined as the control of change and accordingly power is greater when there is control over change. CHANGE-In the 1880s football clubs had overall power (oppressive power as Foucault puts it) over players but today players (as individuals resisting to this power) now have power over clubs. Not only this, but the Football Association previously exercised similar power over the Premier League but now the Premier League has also become more powerful. FIELD OF EXPLORATION- How Foucault’s notion of power within institutions, as portrayed in his works power/knowledge, The History of Sexuality and The Birth of the Clinic, is relevant to the power relationship between the Football Association and the Premier League and between football clubs and players.
Objectives: • To what extent has this notion of rights evolved over time, from the ancient Greeks to the present day? • To what extent do non-human animals possess legal and/or moral rights? • Depending on whether animals do or do not possess legal and/or moral rights I will determine why it is that they do, or do not possess these rights and what has changed. Structure: 1st Chapter: I will trace the notion of ‘Rights’ through the Western Philosophical Tradition from Aristotle to Darwin. I will determine whether or not they believed animals to possess intrinsic value and moral standing; did animals possess rights and if they did not, did they believe that they should. 2nd Chapter: I will look at the 1970’s onwards, what has been referred to as ‘the Greening of Philosophy.’ To what extent has the notion of moral consideration for animals changed? Do animals possess rights, if so, do they possess significantly more rights? 3rd Chapter: I will determine whether animals do, or do not possess legal rights and/or moral rights? Why is it that they do, or do not possess these rights and to what extent has this notion of ‘Rights’ changed? Change: I will look at the 1970’s as the key change as there was an emergence of interest in environmental philosophy and the belief in both moral consideration and moral standing for animals. I will examine to what extent there has been a change in both legal rights and moral rights for animals. Did they and/or do they possess such rights? If there has been a change, Why? Sources: Law Relating to Animals, Brooman and Legge. The Rights of Nature, Nash. Rights, Jones. Animal Rights and Human Obligations, Regan and Singer. Respect for Nature A Theory of Environmental Ethics, Taylor. Animal Rights – a Symposium, Ryder. Environmental Ethics, What Really Matters, What Really Works, Schmidtz and Willot.
Objectives 1. To explore how styles of dance have progressed from rudimentary stamping and clapping to intricate and complex steps considering the evolution of the language of dance and the crossing of boundaries between styles and moves, and a progression from freestyle, expressive dance to more formal, conceptual dance such as Ballet, then the application of forms to again, more freestyle, expressive dance. 2.How dance’s role in expressing religious, ethnic, and aesthetic paradigms throughout the history of our civilisation has evolved, and how the development of technology and communication has allowed a new level of interaction and sharing of knowledge, enabling avante garde dance forms to spread beyond their cultural boundaries through the sharing of abstract knowledge. 3. To explore dance as a cathartic and expressive means and the relation humans have to visual expression throughout the ages, breakdown of dualistic mentality allows bridge between mind and matter to be crossed, where both abstract ideas and subjective emotions can be expressed in movement. Look secondarily at physical comedians, mime-artists, free-running, how objects can be implied and their very nature changed by miming a door or turning a city into your playground. The meaning of expression and movement in the arts. 4. To explore the places associated with the dance: theatres, clubs, music videos, streets, studios and all-important practice spots, exploring the connections these places have to the dancer and the origins of the dance, i.e. Ballet in the theatre, Breaking in the streets. To create a video with philosophical commentary juxtaposing different styles and areas. Field / territory Contemporary Dance forms, performance and practice locations. Key Concepts To what extent conditions and paradigms mould the form of a dance, the age of expression, how popular dance forms are an expression of the times, the commercialisation of dance forms Sources Expression and Movement in the Arts, David Best, America Dancing, John Martin; The Male Dancer, Bodies, Spectacles, Sexualities, Ramsay Burt, Understanding Dance, Graham Mcfee, A Short History of Classical Theatrical Dancing, Lincoln Kirstein, Web based articles and downloadable clips, Videos, Style Wars DVD, The Freshest Kids DVD, Interviews of dancers, choreographers and spectators, BBC1 Documentary.
Religion as a particular system of faith or worship. A system of beliefs. A belief in a higher power, a belief in spirits, Mana, Darshan. A development from primitive culture. A direct relationship with God, or with an unseen higher power. George Bataille, Theory of Religion. A destruction of the world of immanence, a destruction of the vague intimacy of man. The creation of tools, the turning of everything, man, animal and tool in to a thing. The thing, a symbol of duration, of utility, of productivity, that which destroys intimacy and immanence. The Sacrifice, is the only way to restore things to the realm of the sacred, make a thing no longer a thing, to return it to what it once was “The thing – only the thing – is what sacrifice means to destroy in the victim.” The Festival is that which offers a release from the problem of being human, it is not the perfect solution, but it is the only one. It allows man to break free, but only as free as his consciousness deems useful. Intoxication, Drugs, Alcohol, Raves, Clubbing. Various forms of release in our society, ways which match the Bataillean idea of festival as being the only way for man to get in touch with his lost self, a return to immanence. All these things are depicted in the work of the contemporary author Irvine Welsh, as he describes the exploits of his characters in working class Edinburgh, whether they are on psychoactive drugs, or in the lost world of heroin.
Objectives • To consider what ‘I’ means: what it consists of and what we want/hope it to mean (e.g. consisting of a soul etc.). • To consider what I myself am as an individual and what I believe I ought to be. • To consider what kind of world I am living in and what kind of world I feel I ought to be living in. • To try and distinguish between what I believe I ought to be and the influence society has on this. How Done • I will look at Plato’s view of what a human being is made up of. • Also the way everyday people see the human person and the reasons for this. • I will assess myself: who I am, and from this discover what I have to change or enhance in order to become what I ought to be. What Achieved • By doing this I will be able to attempt to move from the place I am in now to the place I want or ought to be in. • This ‘place’ being not just existent inside myself, but also being in the physical world as a real place. • However, this real place as the world would not be changed only physically, but also in its ideals.
This project will address the transition in human mediation between self, society and world affected by the transition from religious mediation to financial mediation. The problem will be posed from the perspective of circulation and the historical consequences suspected to arise from unrestricted human interaction. Broadly speaking the project will focus on; *The framing of transgression and taboo in Hittite, Scriptural, Roman, Ecclesiastical and British Civil law *The Council of Elvira and the formulation of the principle of una cara by Basil the Great *The birth of the Bank of England and consequent transfer of value and mediation *The contemporary economic situation which, with the demand for deregulation of markets and increasing tendency toward investment in areas of low governance leaves social mediation almost entirely up to finance and credit- the promise of value rather than value itself
Aim: To explore Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari’s arguments on Capitalism as an axiomatic and socially repressive system, in the book ‘Anti-Oedipus.’ Concepts to be explored: -An analysis of the concepts ‘schizophrenia’ and ‘paranoia’ as two opposing poles of the dynamics of capital. -A reference to the criticism of psychoanalysis and Freud’s Oedipus complex. -An investigation of the ‘three syntheses’ and the ‘five paralogisms.’ -An exploration and history of ‘social production’s’ repression of ‘desiring production.’
My place: The stage, the stage defines a reality Madness and Norms, the idea that a person’s existence can be defined by a definition. How key madness is to our concept of the world ‘we only have reason through the classification of madness’ We only have reality through make believe Objective The stage defines a reality, an exploration between the reality of madness as a concept and the reality of the stage. How fundamental madness is to our concept of the world ‘we only have reason through the classification of madness’. We only have reality through make believe. Sources: Foucault: Madness and Civilization, Derrida: Dissemination, Nietzsche, Shakespeare Part 1: Defining madness Part 2: Classification of madness Part 3: Madness and the stage Part 4: The mind as the stage, concept of reason and rationality
When a human being contracts AIDS, their DNA is replaced, and their very existence becomes deficient. In a cold light, it is a murderous disease but the reality is that the negation of viral infection only delays evolution. Nietzsche argued with and against Darwin on the nature of natural selection, and made the will to power applicable to more than just the human being. Highlighting the development of AIDS since the 1980s, I will show how diseases are able to shape society and evolve beings in a network of complexity theory created by the “self-organised behaviours of complex genetic regulatory systems”.
Part One – Knowledge of the Unconscious In what way is the unconscious knowable, an object available to knowledge? A look at the analogies Freud uses to describe psychoanalysis as a method capable of producing knowledge, and analysis as cure through knowledge. In what ways does the notion of the unconscious make ideas about a monogamous knowledge of (and authority on) itself problematical? Do I know, or am I paranoid? (Sources: Freud, Kant) Part Two – Lyotard, Knowledge, and Paralogy Drawing on the work of Lyotard we can sketch out an account of the unconscious as an effect of phrases. The human as a node, or knot, in a complex of relations that pre-exist her – as embedded. What is the place of the affect in the work of Lyotard, and where does he place it? The move to psychoanalysis as flirtation – the promiscuous movement among beds. (Sources: The Postmodern Condition, The Differend, The Inhuman) Part Three – Practise in Paralogy, Paralogy in Practise Using the findings of part two we can offer an account of why Adam Phillips writes the way he writes that turns around the work of Lyotard. Is Phillips the last psychoanalytic writer (is he a psychoanalytic writer?)? Has promiscuity brought about the end of the psychoanalytic relationship? The replacement of psychoanalysis as epistemology by psychoanalysis as ethos. (Sources: Lyotard, Adam Phillips, Jacqueline Rose, D.W.Winnicott)
Objective: My objective in my project is to study the various methods that country’s have of detaining young offenders. I will look at the conditions that they are detained in and the treatment they receive from the authorities. The countries that I will focus most of my essay on are: Brazil, Turkey, USA, and England. Having studied the state of the juvenile prisons, I will hopefully have come to a conclusion as to which country has successfully reformed the most children, so that they are able to lead constructive lives when they are released. The philosopher who I will mainly focus on in Foucault, and in particular his book “Discipline and Punish”. I will look at his writings on how the penal system has developed over the years, his views about torture, his writings on Jeremy Bentham’s “Panopticon”, his belief that the authorities are diminishing the human spirit, and his beliefs in why prisons continue to be used when they appear to be unsuccessful at reducing crime. Sources: As I have already said the philosopher who I will focus on is Foucault so I will use his books. The information I will use when writing about the prison system will largely come from reports made by groups such as the Human Rights Watch, who have been over to these countries and have interviewed the prisoners, government officials, lawyers, and social workers. Achievements: Having studied the various juvenile prisons around the world I have come to the conclusion that out of the four countries that I have focused on the USA and surprisingly Turkey have the lowest number of children re-offending when they are released. Although both prisons appear to have very contrasting methods of treating the children (USA like a military camp, and Turkey like a boarding school), they do have many similarities. Both prisons have a very specific structure to the day that the children must obey. Both are also concerned with integrating the children back into society, Turkey while the children are in prison and the USA when the children have left (which they refer to as “after care”)
OBJECTIVE: • I intend to explore the oppression of women in a patriarchal society with particular reference to art. • To achieve this I will examine the treatment of women in art institutions and within society as a whole and by discussing assumptions about the nature of femininity and how these have an oppressive force. SOCIETY: • Family: What does it mean to be a “good” women? An exploration into patriarchal codes of conduct enforced upon women that forbid female professionalism. • Institutions: How knowledge is manipulated to maintain current social divisions that segregate men and women and prioritise male characteristics. • Power: artistic impressions of the power dynamic that exists between men and women. Using examples of pictures I will demonstrate different approaches to this subject. ART HISTORY: • An investigation into the manipulation of knowledge and the use of negative assumptions of femininity to prevent female artists achieving recognition. EROTICISM: • The evident bias in painting of the nude that only acknowledges the male viewer. • How does this bias affect the idea of rights and equality and how have female artists confronted this issue? • Have women escaped oppression today?
My Place and The Transition: My Mother’s Arms. It is my intention to depict the differing views through history regarding the body and mind, and how they are synonymous with the changing view towards the mother’s arms with maturity – from infancy to childhood to adulthood – through the acquisition of intelligence, thought, and independence. With the development of a child, comes a certain independence from its mother – a certain autonomy – as a mother’s arms become more a place of comfort, and not such a place of necessity. Objective: – A study of the views regarding the body, mind, and consciousness. – Development of free will, emotional self, intellect, imagination. – The differing roles of males and females. Sources: Aristotle Descartes, Rene, Meditations On First Philosophy Vesey, V N A., Body And Mind
Territory & Objectives: My project investigates the way in which we impose received value systems upon the world around us, and how those standards are also mapped upon the individual body as carrier of those principles of the dominant societal mode thus affecting our relationships with one another. It shows that living within the context of capitalism shapes the criteria of these docile evaluations, and demonstrates how this system of evaluation self-referentially recourses to fortify the capitalist social system through flux and change. Discussion will move on to consider in detail how locally received examples of information disseminated by globally operating media cartels act to coerce individuals’ lifestyle investment in the authority of the system. This will be orientated by the appraisal of lifestyle magazines, exploring how the discourses of desire within the grand schema of capitalism set standards of normative criteria which are employed in a self-policing system of adherence to what it means to be a good consumer. These various lifestyle aspects by various publications persuade the individual, critically disengaged, to regard themselves as the aspiring capitalist critically engaged in the labour of consumption and therefore active in the formation of their lives and their relationships with other people. Rather than promoting multi-cultural, inter-disciplinary engagement in the process of being, the imperative to consume, saturated throughout commercial repertoires, in fact causes and substantiates rival economies and inequalities between individuals, between factions and at the level of global market forces. Further, the effect of tying consumption, through advertising, to normative standards set, makes it almost impossible to recognise the specificity of an individual. Rather, we evaluate ourselves and others against normative standards which discourage empathy for our fellow man, a state of affairs which may have dire consequences. Finally then, this paper will suggest what possibilities remain for communication between us with a view to the reformation of a networked community in response to the alienation and apathy of the individual in high capitalism. Change: The way in which advertising has tied consumption to normative values which are themselves set with the imperative to consume in mind. The overall effect is to diminish greatly one’s scope for specificity, and to create conflicts of interest. Sources: Foucault, M., The History of Sexuality I: The Will to Knowledge, Penguin, 1998; Foucault, M., The Archaeology of Knowledge, Routledge 1994, Bristol; Foucault, M., Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972-1977, ed. Gordon, C., Pantheon Books 1989, New York; Blanchot, M., Literature and the Right to Death, The Station Hill Blanchot Reader, Station Hill Press 1999, Barrytown; Marx, K., Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx: Selected Writings, Ed. McLellan, D., Oxford University Press 1977
I wanted to explore why we (Western Society) have the belief that it is right for humans to have authority over the rest of the environment and to dominate it, utilising it however is deemed fit. My outlook within this project is to clarify differing perceptions of nature and how they are influential. My aim is to establish how society has got the perception of nature that it has. Intro: the underlying question is why do humans believe that they have the right to dominate the environment? I intend to clarify differing attitudes towards, and beliefs about nature. Discuss the different focuses of the discussion. What is nature? Different Viewpoints on Nature. Environmental ethics: anthropocentrism, speciesism, eco-feminism, humanism, idealism, deep ecology, animal rights, vegetarianism and veganism etc. What do they say about the relationship between humans and nature? How past perceptions of nature have changed e.g. Romanticism, and why has it got more controversial? Religious Concepts of Nature. Why I am looking at religious examples. Different time spans and areas. Primitive v Modern. Religion communicates social norms. Totemism. The religion, the relationship with totems. Different teachings and sacraments. What does this say about the relationship with nature? Paganism. Mother nature, link with eco-feminism. Different beliefs. Relationship with nature. Judeo-Christian beliefs. Patriarchal, anthropocentric, institutionalised. What does this say about the relationship with nature? Religious Conclusion. What do these contrasting religions communicate about man and nature? Comparison of Christianity and Paganism-Mother v Lord. Look at respect for nature in Totemism and compare this to modern Christianity. Is Christianity fundamentally anthropocentric? Dualism, Patriarchy. Ecological effort. Psychological Relationship. Importance of psychology, what can it tell us about our preconceptions of nature? Jung’s Collective Conscious. What is it? Is it plausible that our collective conscious can dictate our relationship to nature? Discussion General psychological opinion. Nativists v empiricists. Psychological Conclusion. What do these arguments infer about humanity’s attitude towards nature? Philosophical Relationship. What can philosophy tell us? Different Arguments. Kant, Heidegger, Wittgenstein, Nietzsche, Plato. Dualism v Monism. Descartes. Spinoza. What a world view’s impact on the relationship between humanity and nature is. Conclusion. Religion, Psychology, Philosophy and Sociological ⇒ what they infer? Which has the most impact? Why do we have the relationship with nature that we do?
Part 1: The Development and Awareness of the Individual within Community. Role of Education in the Development of Faith in Children; Interplay of education and faith; Education as a resolution. Part 2: Reassessing/Reconstructing an Ethical Community. A Future Community Ethic; Necessary? Possible? What is needed to construct a future community that meets the required ethic? Aim: Looking at what brings an individual to their moral potential, investigating through faith and education. Territory: Community of South Bailey, Durham, with education and community linked through pre-school to university colleges. Paradigm Shift: Moral and community Sources:Derrida, Foucault Tolstoy, Aquinas
Explain what modernism is and how philosophers have described modernism and the way it produced post modernism. 2. A conclusion as to what I conclude postmodernism to be after reading and exploring philosopher’s notes. 3. How does modernism and post modernism affect the architecture? 4. Choose examples in and around Newcastle and Gateshead that I can compare and explore as to whether they have been affected by modernism and postmodernism. 5. Visit the few places of interest and explore their history. 6. Conclude as to whether modernism and post modernism has actually affected those areas that I have chosen to explore. SOURCES: Books: The theatres royal in Newcastle upon Tyne – Oswald Capitalism and Modernity – Goody The post modern and the post industrial – M.A Rose Post modernity – Barry Smart Max Weber and Post-modern theory – N.Gane Social and Cultural Forms of Modernity – B. Bocock And K.Thompson Visits: Gateshead Visitor Centre – The Sage, Gulbenkian Theatre, Theatre Royal – Grey Street