My paper “Energy current and computing” is online

Theme issue of the Royal Society Philosophical Transactions A

Celebrating 125 years of Oliver Heaviside’s ‘Electromagnetic Theory’ compiled and edited by Christopher Donaghy-Spargo and Alex Yakovlev is now online:

http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/376/2134

My paper “Energy current and computing” is here:

http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/376/2134/20170449

 

My PhD Thesis (1982) – scanned copy in pdf

I have finally managed to scan my PhD thesis “Design and Implementation of Asynchronous Communication Protocols in Systems Interfaces” in Russian (“Проектирование и реализация протоколов асинхронного обмена информацией в межмодульном интерфейсе”)

The thesis is spread between several files (total – 255 pages):

Title, Contents and Introduction:

Chapter 1 (General characterization of the methods of formal synthesis and analysis of communication protocols): 

Chapter 2 (Formalization of the behaviour of interacting objects and communication protocols):

Chapter 3 (Interpretation of asynchronous processes and use of interpreted models for the description and analysis of protocols):

Chapter 4 (Organization of aperiodic interface of intermodular communication):

Conclusion and References:

Appendinces (1-5):

(1) Example of context procedure

(2) Example of controlled protocol

(3) Application of Petri nets to specification of asynchronous discrete structures

(4) Information transfer on three-state lines

(5) Analysis and implementation of the TRIMOSBUS interface

Exploitation confirmation letter from Ufa plant

 

Real Nature’s proportionality is geometric: Newton’s causality

I recently enjoyed e-mail exchanges with Ed Dellian.

Ed is one of the very few modern philosophers and science historians who read Newton’s Principia in original (and produced his own translation of Principia to German – published in 1988).

Ed’s position is that the real physical (Nature’s) laws reflect cause and effect in the form of geometric proportionality. The most fundamental being E/p=c, where E is energy, p is momentum and c is velocity – a proportionality coefficient, i.e. a constant associated with space over time.  This view is in line with the Poynting vector understanding of electromagnetism, also accepted by Heaviside in his notion of ‘energy current’. It even is the basis of Einstein’s E/mc = c.

The diversion from geometric proportionality towards arithmetic proportionality was due to Leibniz and his principle of “causa aequat effectum“. According to Ed (I am quoting him here)  – “it is a principle that has nothing to do with reality, since it implies “instantanity” of interaction, that is, interaction independently of “real space” and “real time”, conflicting with the age-old natural experience expressed by Galileo that “nothing happens but in space and time” “. It is therefore important to see how Maxwellian electromagnetism is seen by scholars. For example, Faraday’s law states an equivalence of EMF and the rate of change of magnetic flux – it is not a geometric proportion, hence it is not causal!

My view, which is based on my experience with electronic circuits and my understanding of causality between and energy and information transfer (state-changes), where energy is cause and information transfer is effect, is in agreement with geometric proportionality. Energy causes state-transitions in space-time. This is what I call energy-modulated computing. It is challenging to refine this proportionality in every real problem case!

If you want to know more about Ed Dellian’s views, I recommend visiting his site http://www.neutonus-reformatus.de  which contains several interesting papers.

 

 

 

 

A causes B – what does it mean?

There is a debatable issue that concerns the presence of causality in the interpretation of some physical relationships, such as those involved in electromagnetism. For example, “the dynamic change in magnetic field H causes the emergence of electric field E”. This is a common interpretation of one of the key Maxwell’s equations (originating in Faraday’s law). What does this “causes” mean? Is the meaning purely mathematical or is it more fundamental, or physical?

First of all, any man-made statements about real world phenomena are not strictly speaking physical, because they are formulated by humans within their perceptions, or, whether we want it or not, models, of the real world. So, even if we use English to express our perceptions we already depart from the “real physics”. Mathematics is just a man-made form of expression that is underpinned by some mathematical rigour.

Now let’s get back to the interpretation of the “causes” (or causality) relations. It is often synonymized  with the “gives rise” relation. Such relations present a lot of confusion if they originate from the interpretation of mathematical equations. For example, Faraday’s law in mathematical form, curl (E) = – dB/dt,  does not say anything about the RHS causing or giving rise to the LHS. (Recall that B is proportional to H with the permeability of the medium being the coefficient of proportionality.)

The interpretation problem, when taken outside pure mathematics leads to the question, for example, of HOW QUICKLY the RHS causes the LHS? And, here we have no firm answer. The question of “how quickly does the cause have an effect” is very much physical (yet neither Faraday nor Maxwell state anything about it!), because we are used to think that if A causes B, then we imply some temporal precedence between the event associated with A and the event associated with B. We also know that it is unlikely that this ‘causal precedence’ will effect faster than the speed of light (we haven’t seen any other evidence of information signalling acting faster than the speed of light!). Hence, the causality with the speed of light is something that may be the result of our causal interpretation. But, then this is probably wrong to assume that Faraday or Maxwell gave this sort of interpretation to the above relationship.

Worth thinking about causality, isn’t it?

I have no clear answer, but in my opinion, reading the original materials on electromagnetic theory, such as Heaviside’s volumes, rather than modern textbooks would be a good recipe!

I recommend anyone interested in this debatable matter check out Ivor Catt’s view on it:

http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/x18j73.pdf

http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/x18j184.pdf

To the best of my knowledge, Catt was the first to have noticed and wrote about the fact that modern texts on electromagnetism actively use the ’causes’ interpretation of Maxwell’s equations. He also claims that such equations are “obvious truisms about any body or material moving in space”.  The debatable matter may then start to move from the question of the legitimacy of the causal interpretation of these equations towards the question of how useful these equations are for actual understanding of electromagnetism …

 

 

 

 

IoT Technology Market 2017-2022 Prognosis

Quoting the recent Research and Markets store:

“Internet of Things Technology Market by Node Component (Processor, Sensor, Connectivity IC, Memory Device, and Logic Device), Network Infrastructure, Software Solution, Platform, Service, End-use Application and Geography – Global Forecast to 2022”

https://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/hld477/internet_of

IoT technology market expected to grow at a CAGR of 25.1% during the forecast period”

“The IoT technology market is expected to be valued at USD 639.74 billion by 2022, growing at a CAGR of 25.1% from 2017 to 2022. The growth of the IoT technology market can be attributed to the growing market of connected devices and increasing investments in the IoT industry. However, the lack of common communication protocols and communication standards across platforms, and high-power consumption by connected devices are hindering the growth of the IoT technology market.”

my talk at Hardware Design and Theory Workshop in Vienna – October 2017

I gave a talk on How to Design Little Digital, yet Highly Concurrent Electronics?

at the Hardware Design and Theory Workshop in Vienna – October 2017

https://www.mpi-inf.mpg.de/departments/algorithms-complexity/hdt2017/

The workshop was part of the  International conference on Distributed Compiting (DISC 2017)

http://www.disc-conference.org/wp/disc2017/

My presentation can be found here:

https://www.mpi-inf.mpg.de/fileadmin/inf/d1/HDT2017/DISC-HW-workshop-AY.pdf

 

Real-Power Computing: Basics

What is Real-Power Computing?

RP Computing is a discipline of designing computer systems, in hardware and software, which operate under definite power or energy constraints. These constraints are formed from the requirements of applications, i.e. known at the time of designing or programming these systems or obtained from the real operating conditions, i.e. at run time. These constrains can be associated with limited sources of energy supplied to the computer systems as well as with bounds on dissipation of energy by computer systems.

Applications

These define areas of computing where power and energy require rationing in making systems perform their functions.

Different ways of categorising applications can be used. One possible way is to classify application based on different power ranges, such as microWatts, milliWatts etc.

Another way would be to consider application domains, such as bio-medical, internet of things, automotive systems etc.

Paradigms

These define typical scenarios where power and energy constraints are considered and put into interplay with functionalities. These scenarios define modes, i.e. sets of constraints and optimisation criteria. Here we look at the main paradigms of using power and energy on the roads.

Power-driven: Starting on bicycle or car from stationary state as we go from low gears to high gears. Low gears allow the system to reach certain speed with minimum power.

Energy-driven: Steady driving on a motorway, where we could maximise our distance for a given amount of fuel.

Time-driven: Steady driving on a motorway where we minimise the time to reach the destination and fit the speed-limit regulations.

Hybrid: Combinations of power and energy-driven scenarios, i.e. like in PI (D) control.

Similar categories could be defined for budgeting cash in families, depending on the salary payment regimes and living needs. Another source of examples could be the funding modes for companies at different stages of their development.

Architectural considerations

These define elements, parameters and characteristics of system design that help meeting the constraints and optimisation targets associated with the paradigms. Some of them can be defined at design (programming and compile) time while some defined at run-time and would require monitors and controls.

On Relationship between X and Y chromosome evolution and PID control

First of all, I would like you to read my previous post on the graphical interpretation of the mechanisms of evolution of X and Y chromosomes.

These mechanisms clearly demonstrate the greater changeability of the X pool (in females) than the Y pool  (present only in males) – simply due to the fact that X chromosomes in females merge and branch (called fan in and fan out).

The next, in my opinion, interesting observation is drawn from the notions of mathematical analysis and dynamical systems theory. Here we have ideas of proportionality, integration, differentiation, on one hand, and notions of combinationality and sequentiality on the other.

If we look at the way how X-chromosomes evolve with fan-in mergers, we clearly see the features akin to proportionality and differentiality. The outgoing X pools are sensitive to the incoming X pools and their combinations. Any mixing node in this graph shows high sensitivity to inputs.

Contrary to that, the way of evolution of Y-chromosomes with NO fan-in contributions, clearly shows the elements of integration and sequentiality, or inertia, i.e. the preservation of the long term features.

So, the conclusions that can be drawn from this analysis are:

  1. Males tend to bring the integral or sequential (cf. sequential circuits in digital systems – with longer term memory) aspect to the overall process of evolution
  2. Females tend to bring the proportional/differential or combinatorial (cf. combinational circuits – with shorter term memory)
  3. The presence of both male and female genetics are essential for stability of the evolution and survival of the kind, much like the PID feedback control helps stability of dynamical systems, and much like the combination of combination and sequential circuits allow computer systems to operate according to their programs.

Again, I would be grateful for any comments and observations!

PS. By looking at the way how our society is now governed (cf. female or male presidents and prime ministers), you might think whether we are subject to differentiality/combinatorics or integrality/sequentiality and hence whether we are stable as a dynamical system or systems (in different countries).

Happy Days!

 

 

 

 

 

On the dynamics of evolution of Y and X chromosomes

It is a known fact that men inherit both Y and X chromosomes while women only X chromosomes.

As a corollary of that fact we also know that Y-chromosomes, sometimes synonymized with Y-DNA, are only inherited by the male part of the human race. This means that Y-chromosome inheritance mechanism is only forward-branching, i.e. Y-DNA is passed from one generation to the next generation “nearly” unchanged. As I am not an expert in genetics I cannot state precisely, in quantitative terms, what this “nearly” is worth. Suppose this “nearly” is close to 100% for simplicity.

Below is a diagram which illustrates my understanding of the mechanism of inheritance of Y-chromosomes.

This diagram is basically a branching tree, showing the pathways of the Y-DNA from one generation to the future generations of males. The characteristic feature of this inheritance mechanism is that it is Fan-out only. Namely, there is no way that the Y-DNA can be obtained by merging different Y-DNAs because we have no Fan-in mechanism.

Let’s now consider the mechanism of inheritance and evolution of X-chromosomes.The way how I see this mechanism is shown in the following diagram.

X-chromosomes are inherited by both males and females. But, as I understand, this happens in two different ways.

Each female takes a portion of X chromosomes from her father (let’s denote it as X1) and a portion of X chromosomes from her mother (denoted by X2), thereby producing its own set of chromosomes X2’ which is a function of X1 and X2. Similar inheritance is in the next generation where X2’’=f(X1’,X2’).

Each male, however, only inherits X chromosomes from his mother, as shown above, where X1’’=f(X2’).

At each generation, when the offspring produced has a female, there is a merge of X chromosomes from both parents. This means that the pool of X chromosomes as we go down the generations is constantly changed and renewed with new DNA from different incoming branches.

This mechanism is therefore both Fan-in and Fan-out. And this is not a tree but a directed acyclic graph.

What sort of conclusion can we draw from this analysis? Well, I draw many interesting (to me at least) conclusions associated with the dynamics of evolution of the genetic pool of males and females. One can clearly see that the dynamics of genesis of females is much higher than that of males. Basically, one half of a male’s genesis remains “nearly” (please note my earlier remark about “nearly”) unchanged, and only the other half is subject to mutation, whereas in females both halves are changed.

I can only guess that Y-chromosomes are probably affected by various factors such as geographical movements, difference in environment, deceases etc., but these mutations are nowhere near as powerful as the mergers in the X-pool.

In my next memo I will write about the relationship between the above mechanisms of evolution and PID (proportional-integrative-differential) control in dynamical systems, which will lead to some conjectures about the feedback control mechanisms in evolution of species.

I would be grateful if those whose knowledge of human genetics is credible enough could report to me of any errors in my interpretation of these mechanisms.